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APOE

This week I again discuss two genetic variations at the same time. The reason being that they are part of the same gene, and that they are strongly related to the risk for development of Alzheimer’s disease, if they are considered together. This gene, called apolipoprotein E, makes a protein which, when combined with fat becomes a lipoprotein. These proteins are used by our body to transport fat through our water rich body, for example through the blood. In other words they form a ball-shaped vesicle made of cholesterol and molecules that have a water soluble outer side, and on the inside of the ball shape is the fat-liking part of the molecules. In that way, there is a fat storage ball that can travel through water, whereas normally water and fat would be not be mixable. These lipoproteins can be used by the body as clean up mechanisms for fatty particles. This for example the case in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease. Alzheimer disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with cognitive decline and is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Approximately 13% of people over the age of 65 and 45% over the age of 85 are estimated to have this disease. Mounting evidence from genetic, pathological, and functional studies has shown that an imbalance between the production and clearance of amyloid-β peptides in the brain results in accumulation and aggregation of Aβ. These are called amyloid plaques, and can be found in the brain of most Alzheimer patients. Beta amyloid peptide needs to be cleaned up regularly from the brain in order to not form a plaque, that is linked to the development of Alzheimer’s Disease. That is what APOE is responsible for. The two genotypes mentioned above are determining the effectiveness of this process. There are four possibilities. For rs429358 one can have C:C, C:T or T:T. The same is true for the other SNP. The lowest risk for Alzheimer occurs when one has T:T and T:T, the most common genotype is T:T and C:C. The risk-forming genotypes are C:C and C:C. These individuals have 11 times the risk for the development of Alzheimer compared to normal, and should clearly take nutritional intervention from GenHealth to prevent the development of this disease. Other genotype variations have risks in between the values given above. It is always wise to take GenHealth for the Alzheimer benefits, and making sure that the most prominent risk factors, being beta amyloid deposits, but also chronic inflammation are reduced.


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